the last data from Gaza, a video

  (80 days) on the total genocidal war.

 (1,745) massacres

 (27,674) martyrs and missing persons.

 (20,674) martyrs who arrived in hospitals.

 (8,500) child martyrs.

 (6,300) female martyrs.

 (311) martyrs of medical staff.

 (40) Civil Defense martyrs.

 (103) martyred journalists.

 (7,000) missing, 70% of whom are children and women.

 (54,536) infected.

 (101) cases of arrest of health personnel.

 (9) detained journalists.

 (1.8) million displaced people in the Gaza Strip.

 (355,000) infected with infectious diseases as a result of displacement.

 (126) government headquarters destroyed by the occupation.

 (92) schools and universities were completely destroyed by the occupation.

 (285) schools and universities were partially destroyed by the occupation.

 (115) mosques were completely destroyed by the occupation.

 (200) mosques partially destroyed by the occupation.

 (3) Churches targeted and destroyed by the occupation.

 (65,000) housing units were completely destroyed by the occupation.

 (290,000) housing units partially destroyed by the occupation.

 (23) Hospitals taken out of service by the out of service by the occupation.

 (53) health centers that the occupation took out of service.

 (140) health institutions were partially targeted by the occupation.

 (102) ambulances completely destroyed by the occupation.

Dec 25, 2023


on Christmas 2023, and in the day when more than 100 people were killed in al Mughraby camp, wish you to keep strong in the struggle

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dec 22 a day full of BAD news











*Press Statement*

The arrest of many of the Palestinian Red Crescent Society’s employees in Jabalia refugee camp by the Zionist enemy, as well as the continuation of the arrest of nearly 100 medical personnel, who were arrested while on duty in the hospitals that were destroyed in the north of the Gaza Strip, is a war crime and a proof of the fascism of this enemy that is systematically destroying the health sector.

We call on the United Nations and international health and human rights organizations to stand up to their legal and moral responsibilities to protect medical facilities and personnel, and to exert pressure on the Zionist authorities to immediately release the doctors and medical personnel, as well as all the Palestinian civilians who were kidnapped from shelters and hospitals in a barbaric manner that violates the most basic standards of human rights.–

*Press Statement*

In a new manifestation of the contemporary fascism represented by the criminal Zionist entity, several areas in the city of Gaza and the northern areas of the sector have recorded operations of liquidation and execution by the bullets of the fascist occupation army, for entire families, as happened with the (Inaya) family in the city of Gaza, whose bodies were found in their home after the withdrawal of the occupation.

There have also been several cases of the execution of civilian men in front of women and children of their families, after storming their homes, according to the testimonies of the residents and survivors of these terrorist massacres.

In the face of the horrific crimes of executing civilians in their homes and the ongoing war of annihilation against our people in the Gaza Strip; the United Nations, the international community, and all human rights and humanitarian law

Islamic Resistance movement – Hamas

Dec 22, 2023
Official website – Hamas movement





13 votes in favour, no votes against and abstentions by the US and Russia. 










GAZA, Dec. 22 (Xinhua) — Hamas expressed disappointment at the UN Security Council Resolution adopted on Friday demanding immediate and unhindered humanitarian access throughout the Gaza Strip.

In a press statement to Xinhua, the Gaza-ruling Palestinian faction at war with the Israeli army said the resolution “failed to match” the catastrophic condition in Gaza resulting from Israeli military actions in the region.

Hamas accused the U.S. administration of watering down the resolution, allowing Israel to continue what it described as a campaign of destruction, violence, and terrorism in Gaza, according to the statement.

Speaking after the vote, Riyad Mansour, permanent observer of the Observer State of Palestine to the United Nations, said that the Security Council first met to address the crisis when hundreds of Palestinians had been killed by Israel, and is now meeting “after over 20,000 Palestinians have been killed, almost half of them children and 60,000 wounded, and two million Palestinians have been forcefully displaced.”

“This resolution is a step in the right direction. It must be implemented and must be accompanied by massive pressure for an immediate ceasefire,” he urged. ■

200 craters identified to now by 9000kg (2000pounds) bombes- 50% were dumb b0mb- IDF source

Paola Manduca, Prof. Genetics

President NWRG-odv 

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Mentre nelle case del Paese si allestiscono i presepi, “50mila Maria” a Gaza si trovano costantemente in pericolo di vita a causa dei bombardamenti. Sono infatti, circa 50mila le donne attualmente incinte che rischiano ogni minuto la vita nella striscia. Di loro, più di 5mila partoriranno nelle prossime settimane e 180 partoriscono ogni giorno.

Per questo oggi, di fronte al presepe allestito in piazza San Pietro, abbiamo deciso di chiedere ancora una volta la fine del genocidio in Palestina, la protezione di tutti i civili e lo stop a una guerra sanguinosa che ha causato finora più di 20mila morti. L’abbiamo fatto esponendo lo striscione “50.000 Maria in Gaza”.

Queste donne partoriranno senza neanche una capanna, un tetto, perché nessuna è al sicuro. Le bombe cadono su ospedali, scuole, sedi Onu, chiese, moschee e università. Tanto che persino a Betlemme, la città della natività, le autorità religiose hanno deciso che quest’anno il Natale non verrà celebrato «in onore dei martiri e in solidarietà con il nostro popolo», e di ritenere «inappropriato organizzare tali festeggiamenti mentre si stanno verificando un massacro a Gaza e attacchi in Cisgiordania».

Per noi che siamo “dalla parte giusta” del mondo, quella complice del massacro israeliano, è un dovere (oltre che un diritto) alzare la voce con l’obiettivo di fermare la guerra, chiedendo la fine del genocidio in Palestina. Come d’altronde chiedono da settimane anche le nazioni unite e lo stesso Papa Francesco.


Quelle Brave q.b.

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The war we do not see.

A concept paper on modern explosives, metal pollution, and birth defects.

Hans Husum, surgeon with doctorate in war surgery.

Paola Manduca, professor in genetics, Genova University.

The precent synopsis is written on request from Professor Terje Einarsen at the University of Bergen. Having read our chronicle in the Norwegian daily Klassekampen on December 1st, 2023, addressing epigenetic damage to unborn life from bomb metal pollution, Terje asked us on behalf of ICJ-Norway and Defend International Law to write up a synopsis of our research and present a professional understanding of the actual problem. Background For 30 years Manduca and her team at Genova University have studied and published extensively on epigenetic effects of micro-environmental agents on cell and organ differentiation. For 40 years Husum has done war surgery with public hospitals and popular movements in the Middle East and Afghanistan and published his research on prehospital trauma systems in peer reviewed medical journals. In 2005 he was invited to Nangarhar Public Hospital in Jalalabad, Afghanistan by local colleagues to examine series of newborn with structural malformations, according to senior doctors of a kind and prevalence never seen before in that province. At this time Husum also got anecdotal evidence from colleagues in Basrah, Iraq of steadily increasing prevalences of abortions, preterm deliveries, and structural birth defects in the provinces in Southern Iraq affected by Western military attacks. However, the circumstances on the ground in Iraq after the 2003-invasion did not allow for scientific studies of the problem. Central Serbia was heavily bombed by modern thermobaric high explosives during the NATO offensive in 1999; Husum contacted Serbian 2 colleagues in Belgrade who reported a significant increase in birth malformations observed from one year after the bombing campaign was conducted. Dahia, the Shia populated suburb in South Beirut, took a high load of Israeli bombardment during the 2006 Lebanon war. Consultations with colleagues at Al Rassoul Hospital, which acts as maternity center for Dahia, revealed the same pattern of birth defects among their patients. Reliable, yet anecdotal, evidence from several war theatres thus indicated a scary epidemiological pattern, which the authors found it mandatory to address for ethical reasons. After the Gulf War on Iraq in 1990, local health workers and humanitarian agencies in target areas claimed that radioactive damage from uranium could be a reason for negative health effect observed in the post-war-period, rightly claiming that depleted uranium was extensively used in metal alloys to improve modern projectiles’ penetration. However, to the best of our professional understanding, the alfa-radiation from depleted uranium is far from strong enough to produce radioactive damage to DNA, thus causing the dramatic increase in major structural birth defects reported observationally. But modern weaponry on explosion spreads multiple heavy metals and metal alloys, not just uranium. In the 1990-ies our understanding of epigenetics became deeper, this new branch of medical science studying how DNA signals are transmitted and cells are communicating. Several solid experimental studies were published documenting that heavy metals and metal cocktails, even in nano-concentrations, could cause epigenetic cellular havoc. Hence, our hypothesis for studies of the epidemiology of the observed post-war birth defects, was that heavy metal pollution from modern high explosives might be a cause of damage to the human fetus by causing epigenetic damage. I.e., that metals can affect the enzymatic and structural proteins and the signaling mechanisms that determine the developmental fate of the cells and the sound structure of organs (see Epigenetics below). It is well established that such interference in early stages of fetal development can cause structural birth defects. Gaza Gaza has since 2006 experienced repeated severe military attacks leaving remnants of heavy metals in the environment. Retrospective studies at Al Shifa hospital showed a progressive increase in birth defects since the 2006 attacks. In 2011 we started surveillance of deliveries alongside analysis of the heavy metals load carried 3 by pregnant women and their babies. Detailed protocols were used for birth registration, and to document the extent of exposures to military attacks as well as other potential risk factors. The data base comprised of three data sets, from 2011, 2016 and from 2018-2019 with 4000-6000 women in each study population. The data demonstrated a significant rise in the prevalence of structural birth defects and preterm deliveries (deliveries between week 27 and 37) between 2011 and 2016, an increase from 1.1 to 1.8% and from 1.1 to 7.9% respectively. Negative outcomes at birth in 2011 and up to 2017 were associated with mothers’ exposure to the bombing in 2009 and in 2014. Study of the extended family and progressed progeny indicated that rise in the prevalence and pattern of birth defects could not be attributed to consanguinity. By ICP/MS analysis we determined the content of 23 metals in mothers’ and/or newborns’ hair. Metal loads since 2014 were consistently high until 2018-2019 for mercury, barium, arsenic, cobalt, cadmium, chrome, vanadium and uranium, pointing to these metals as potential inducers for the increased prevalence of negative health outcomes at birth since 2011. Bodily accumulation of metals whilst residing in bombed areas predisposed for negative birth outcomes. Our data indicate that high loads of mercury in mothers and newborn is consistently found associated with birth defect and high loads of barium with preterm birth. Also the other metals detected by the ICP/MS analysis may cause epigenetic disturbances (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). We do well to notice that the figures here reported from Gaza are based on evident and visible structural defects at the time of birth such as major defects of the rain, nervous system, sensory organs, and the muscle-skeletal system; the prevalences do not include defects or diseases that reveal themselves only later in life, such as anomalies is the heart, hormone system or immune system. Anecdotal data from Gaza indicates that 1.1% of all baby survivors carry defects to the heart, and 0.5% have metabolic faults (personal communication from medical specialists at Al-Shifa, PM). The corresponds well with studies of cohorts of children with congenital malformations from post-war Iraq and Yemen, reporting that 25-30% of the children have defects in the heart and major blood vessels, and 25% have defects in the sexual organs (6, 7, 8, 9). In Gaza we studied toddlers up to 18 months old and found that discrete – yet disabling – damage to emotional and cognitive function is 4 also associated with metal exposure, in case, chromium and uranium. Such malfunction is hard to diagnose in babies, the future may reveal that the real incidence is much higher (10). Therefore, we cannot give exact estimates of the real prevalence of war-related fetal damage in Gaza, but we know that the rates are high, and they are increasing. Epigenetic damage from metals “Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) represent a broad class of exogenic substances that cause adverse effects in the endocrine system by interfering with hormone action. In this first Scientific Statement of The Endocrine Society, we present the evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) have effects on male and female reproduction, cancer, endocrinology of the nerve system, and cardiovascular function.” (11) This statement from 2009 demonstrates that the scientific understanding of epigenetics is a relatively new one. Briefly explained: Cell differentiation, development and extinction is controlled by the gene codes contained in the DNA chromosome in each cell, and new cells are designed from the DNA recipe in mother cells There are two ways to damage this process of life: Either genetically; damage the code. Or by epigenetics, mess up cell performance or the communication between cells – because cells are constantly talking together. For a cell there is many points along the correct “pathway to its proper destination”. The transmission of signals between and inside a cell can be affected in a variety of ways by small interfering molecules such as the heavy metals. Metals can change the methylation status of the DNA, the switch-off function for certain DNA segments, thus affecting the whole function of the cell. Or metals may interfere with enzymatic and structural proteins regulating the cell machinery. Or disturb the communication between cells: Signals are passed between cells through pathways regulated by hormones: the estrogen route is important. Micro-concentrations of certain metals may alter the cells’ estrogen receptors, disturbing or obstructing vital signals, why we call them hormone mimickers or metallo-estrogens. At the stage of primary tissue differentiation, when we consist of just a few hundred stem cells, in our first weeks in the womb, when our organs are under design – we are extremely sensitive to any information coming from the microenvironment; one single failure can be amplified and make the catastrophe. All metals we found in increased amounts in the Gaza’s mothers and babies may have epigenetic effect. E.g., cadmium induces changes to 5 the DNA by epigenetics rather than alteration to DNA sequence. Arsenic readily crosses the blood-brain barrier; hence the brain is easily affected. Epigenetic methylation reactions induced by arsenic are well documented. (12, 13, 14, 15). Other metals with documented epigenetic effect are aluminum, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenite, tin and vanadium (16). Three matters are crucial in order to comprehend the potential hazardous effects of metallo-estrogens: One, the fetus is not protected by the placental barrier. These substances pass from the mother’s blood stream, across the barrier into the fetal blood circulation. During pregnancy the mother shares her own load of these metals with the baby. Second, the metals with epigenetic capacity are active in minimal doses. There is no linear progressive dose-response curve for the effect. Several studies indicate that certain metallo-estrogens are more active the lower is the concentration (17). Third, the simultaneous effect of several different metalloestrogens is unknown and thus unpredictable; they may have additive or potentiating effect, we do not know yet. Where are the risky metals coming from? “The new and improved Multipurpose F3 version gives better penetration, fragment pattern, accuracy and improved safety and has enhanced penetration capability. More than 15 user countries in different applications. Combat proven.” Such reads the advertising from the Norwegian state-owned producer of the celebrated 12.7 sniper ammunition. Evidently, local wars are important laboratories for testing of “improved” explosives. Thermobaric weapons are the main source of military pollution of rare heavy metals in Gaza. Through twenty years Gaza has experienced the effects of generations of thermobaric weapons (fuel-air explosives), from the renowned Hellfire rocket to the latest US versions of bunker-busting projectiles. These weapons act by initially spreading a cloud of high-explosive dust which is then ignited to form a sustained massive pressure wave of high temperatures. The cloud of explosive dust flows around objects and into structures before blastoff. The explosive is made of powdered metals, most often aluminum due to the high combustion temperature of this metal. The aluminum particles are coated with magnesium, nickel or other metal alloys (18) The latest generation of thermobaric weapons use nanofuel as explosive, metal particle size less than 100 mμ 6 (nanometers). The nano-fuel based explosives increase the blast pressure by a factor of five compared to previous thermobaric weapons (19) Another source of heavy metal pollution in Gaza is Dense Inert Metal Explosives (DIME). In DIME projectiles the high explosive contained inside the carbon casing is mixed with a powder of heavy metal particles such as tungsten, cobalt or nickel. On explosion, the metal particles yield momentum to the pressure wave, thereby massively rising the energy of the blast. DIME weapons were used by Israel in the 2006 Lebanon war (personal experience by author, HH) and repeatedly during attacks on Gaza. Tissue samples from war wounds in Gaza in 2006 contained very high concentrations of carbon plus traces of unusual metals such as copper, aluminum and tungsten, a revealing fingerprint of DIME (20, 21). The epigenetic effects of tungsten-alloys have long been well known. Low-dose environmental pollution of this metal increases the risk of cancer diseases, especially is leukemia in children documented (22, 23). What kind of future are we looking into? The pollution of heavy metals in the target areas is permanent. Our studies in Gaza documents that the metal concentration in mothers’ hair remains over years (4). The metal dust and nanoparticles from explosions and demolished structures spreads everywhere and enter the tissues of humans and animals by inhalation, contact, food and water. Heavy metals are not eliminable from the environment. Preventive measures are inconceivable, and so are clean-up operations. Thus is generated a chronic high level of human contamination that cause not only more and more birth defects ,but also of other non-communicable diseases, as cancer, diabetes, and male infertility – all observed to have risen in the specific context of Gaza. I The long-term effects of heavy metal pollution should concern us because the epigenetic imprints may be trans-generational, carried on to grandchildren’s children and further when metallo-estrogens affects the germ cells of the fetus. The sexual organs are shaped during the early blast stage when the fetus is 7-8 weeks old. At this stage the germ cells are very sensitive to programming failures. However, damages in the germ line may not be evident at birth; they manifest themselves later in life and can be transmitted to coming generations (24, 25, 26). 7 Discussion The ecology of environmental pollution and its effects on human physiology is complex. What is scientifically documented from Gaza is the following: 1. Heavy metals weapon components are detected in wounds of war victims. 2. There is a correlation between documented exposure to military attacks and increase in prevalence of congenital defects and in preterm births. 3. The adverse effects are associated with highest load of heavy metal contamination of women and newborn in the population. 4. High loads of several specific metals were associated with adverse effects both in 2011 and 2016: Birth defects and mercury loads in the hair of newborns; preterm births and barium concentrations. 5. The heavy metal contamination ensues from documented acute exposure of mothers to attacks and also from chronic exposure to weapon residues. 6. The heavy metals detected in human tissues have epigenetic potential that can explain the epidemiological pattern of preterm deliveries and structural malformations. 7. No other confounding occupational, environmental or nutritional source of heavy metal or has been identified which can explain the epidemiological alterations in preterm deliveries and neonatal malformations. Because linear causality does not exist in complex epidemiological models, we must read patterns. Metals’ epigenetic interference is governed by a stochastic modality, i.e. is not all or none, but a probabilistic event. Therefore, the consequences of metal pollution by weaponry must be evaluated in terms of increased probability of a certain effect. To the best of our understanding the damages to human life indisputably documented in several scenarios of modern warfare cannot happen randomly. There are other risk factors for miscarriages and fetal disorders such as malnutrition, chronic diseases, kinship-carried genetic disorders. However, the consistent pattern of damage to unborn life and the persistence in time observed in the war theatres during the last decades can hardly be explained by other causative mechanisms than environmental resilient metals inducing epigenetic damage (27, 28). 8 Accountability The producers, dealers and users of modern heavy-metal based high explosives – should they have recognized the risk of damage these weapons yield to the fetus? Considering the grimness of the problem, the scientific documentation of the study matter is amazingly inadequate. There are no comprehensive scientific studies, other than in Gaza, giving detailed confirmation of the exposure, of the level of contamination of humans due to exposure, and the effects on reproductive and general health. And there are no studies available, other than in Gaza, investigating the persistence and changes of heavy metal environmental pollution over time, monitoring the associated changes in reproductive and pediatric health. The seemingly lack of scientific interest may be due to discrete restrictions of access to the study matter: In 2013 one of the authors (HH) was invited speaker to an AllIraqi scientific conference on medical emergencies and trauma in Basrah. The audience comprised of professional colleagues, all of them probably aware of the accelerating epidemic of post-war birth defects in their homeland. However, the issue of malformed newborn was not on the agenda. So, the author asked the conference chair – a colleague from Baghdad, vice-minister of health – permission to announce interest in the matter and invite a few colleagues for informal talks. Request denied, “Sorry Doctor Hans, we have some friends, you know”. Having done a study on the prevalence and types of birth defects in Falluhja one of the authors (PM) was intimidated and restricted from publishing the results through pressure on her colleagues In Fallujah, and there the malformed child survivors are locked up in a special “rehabilitation center” protected by a private security company; only mothers and fathers have access (29). Nonetheless observational data and scientific strong warning signs of the unfolding tragedy have been readily available for twenty years (ref. 1-17). However, the red lights have been ignored: We have studied patent request from weapon producers in the US. The recipe for new types of nano-fueled explosives based on a wide range of heavy metals is given in detail in the applications, also the expected enhancement of the military potential, and the benefit for the producer’s country. But not a single word is written on potential adverse effects of the metal cocktails on the nature world and on humans, and precautions are absent in these requests. 9 Conveniently, the hidden dead and damaged newborn are voiceless and are in numbers that are sometimes – if not always – higher than those directly killed or maimed by the weapons. This must change: Scientific evidence is still imperfect. However, we do know enough at the present stage to get metal polluting weapons banned. Somebody has to stop the ongoing chemical war on unborn life.


1. Manduca P, Naim A, Signoriello S. Specific association of teratogen and toxicant metals in hair of new-borns with organic birth defects or developmentally premature birth in a cohort of couples with documented prenatal exposure to military attacks: an observational study at Al Shifa Hospital, Gaza, Palestine. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2014; 11: 5208-23.

2. Manduca P, Diab SY, Qouta SR, Albarqouni NM, Punamaki R. A cross sectional study of the relationship between the exposure of pregnant women to military attacks in 2014 in Gaza and the load of heavy metal contaminants in the hair of mothers and newborn, BMJ Open 2017; Aug 2;7(7).

3. Manduca P, Al Baraquni N, Al Baraquni L, Abu Abadi D, Abdallah H, Hamad GA, Mosa TA, Balousha S, Miqdad H, Mohammed W, Salah M, El Shawwa R. Hosptal centered surveillance of births in Gaza, Palestine 2011-2017 and heavy metal contamination of the mothers reveals long-term impact of wars. Reprod Toxicol. 2019; 86-32.

4. Manduca P, Baraguini NA, Parodi S.. Long Term Risks to Neonatal Health from Exposure to War-9 Years Long Survey of Reproductive Health and Contamination by Weapon-Delivered Heavy Metals in Gaza, Palestine. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020; 17: 2538.

5. Baraquini NA, Qouta SR, Vänskä M, Diab SY, Punamäki RL, Manduca P. It takes time to unravel the ecology of war in Gaza, Palestine: Long-term changes in maternal, new-born and toddler’s heavy metal loads. Infant and toddler developmental milestones in the aftermath of the 2014 military attacks. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020; 17: 6698. 10

6. FJ Al-Dalla Ali, NS Mahmood, BK Al-Obaidi. Incidence of birth defects at birth among babies delivered at Maternity and Children Teaching Hospital in Ramadi. Al-Anbar Med J 2013.

7. Alaani, STA, Alkubaisy FS, Merie AA. Demographic Aspects of Congenital Heart Disease in Fallujah Maternity and Children Hospital, Fallujah City, Anbar, West of Iraq. Asian J Immun 2023; 6: 163-173.

8. Hussein AA. A five years retrospective study of congenital anomalies at Karbala City, Iraq. Kerbala J Med 2017.

9. Abol-Gaith FM, Ismail NA, Al-Mutawakel AA. The neonate congenital anomalies: Incidence and risk factors before and after the war at Al-Thawrah Hospital, Sanaa, Yemen. Assiut Scient Nurs J 2019; 7: 32-40.

10.Vänskä M, Diab SY, Perko K et al. Toxic Environment of war: Maternal prenatal heavy metal load predicts infant emotional development. Infant Behav Devel 2019; 55.

11. Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Bourguignon JP, Giudice L et al. EndocrineDisrupting Chemicals: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement. Endocr Rew 2009; 30: 293–342.

12. Elkin ER, Higgins C, Aung MT et al. Metals and DNA methylation: Current evidence and future directions. Curr Environ Health Rep 2022; 9: 673-96.

13.Kirtana A, Seetharaman B. Comprening the role of endocrine disruptors in inducing epigenetic toxcicity. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2022; 22: 1059-72.

14.Ljomine OM, Ljomine OK, Iroegbu et al. Epigenetic influence of environmentally neurotoxic metals. Neurotoxicology 2020; 81: 51-65.

15.Chakraborty A, Gosh S, Biswas B et al. Epigenetic modifications from arsenic exposure: a comprehensive review. Sci Total Environ 2022; 810.

16.Darbre PD. Metalloestrogens: an emerging class of inorganic xenoestrogens. J Appl Toicol 2006; 26: 191-97.

17. Shen H, Laird PW. In epigenetic therapy, less is more. Cell Stem Res 2012; 10: 353-54.

18.Turker L. Thermobaric and enhanced blast explosives. A review. Defence Technology 2016; 12: 423-45.

19.Gartner J. Military reloads with nanotech. MIT Technological Review 2005. 11

20. Haaretz October 11, 2006.

21. Brooks J. Warfare of the future, today? The DIME bomb; yet another genotoxic weapon.; accessed 2023/12/14.

22. Miller AC, Mog S, McKinney L at al. Neoplastic transformation of human osteoblast cells to the tumorgenetic phenotype by heavy metal-tungsten alloy particles: induction of genotoxic effects. Carcinogenesis 2001; 22: 115-25.

23. Haneke KE, Masten S. Toxicological summary of tungsten and selected tungsten compounds. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, North Carolina; 2000.

24. Morgan HD, Santos F, Green K et al. Epigenetic reprogramming in mammals. Human Molec Genetic 2005; 14: R47-R58.

25. Maxmilian H, Cavalli G. Molecular mechanisms of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Nature Rev Genetics 2022; 21: 325-41.

26. Rodgers AB, Morgan CP, Leu NA, Bale TL. Transgenerational epigenetic programming via sperm microRNA recapitulates effects of paternal stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2015; 112: 13699-704.

27.Manduca P. Past emerging from present recording: reproductive health history reveals increase in prevalence of birth defects over time, in Gaza, Palestine LPHA 2013, Lancet oral presentation; E-published 2014.

28.Manduca P. Starting from rubble: Collateral victims not accounted for? Long term health effects of the last war of Israel on next generation of Gaza’s people. BMJ 2014; 349.

29.Husum H. Stealth. The new war machine. The Other Press, Malaysia; 2016.

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operatori sanitari palestina # NotaTarget

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hospitals attacked and evacuated , after siege, killings and abductions

in case anybody thought it was not a precise directive to destroy all health services, and believed that the IDF were directed by  the (false) claim that al Shifa was a den for the general commando of Hamas, I guess any doubt must be dispelled now, and it is highly time to react.
news dec 14.
Kamal adwan-in northern Gaza. Another Hospital evacuated by force today in the North of Gaza after days of siege, the killing of personnel by snipers, killing of a pregnant lady that attempted to go there for delivery and of  her baby and wounding of another pregnant woman on the entrance. The hospital was working at reduced capabilities due to the lack of supplies and fuel, water and food.
An another hospital were  personnel and men taken as hostages and abduced. IDF claims they have abducted resistance fighters from inside the Kamal Edwan Hospital  and forced them “to raise their arms and surrender”. However, further investigation by Euro-Med Monitor revealed that the individuals in the picture were actually a trainee doctor named Nasr Imad Al-Madhoun and a nurse employed at the hospital.
This one is not the first time, and it is not the last.
Later today the same fate for alAwda hospital, in the North of Gaza evacuated and personel abduced after 5 or more days of siege, hits of the surgery teather and 2 of the floors of the hospital, killing inside 3 medical personel. This hospital had mostly delivery services and it had inside 36 patients 38 their relatives, 90 personnel and about the same number of their family members, and was without medical suplies since october 7, at 0 fuel and 0 oxygen since days and no water since 3 days.
This evening the Al Alhi Hospital was oreder evacuation, after days of siege. Al Ahli was bombed on october 17, in the first of such attacks on medical facilities in this criminal plan of destruction of health services and medical structures and killing and abduction of personnel. May the all rest in peace.
May we be working for the stop of the genocide and for the return of the hostages, dr al salamya director of Shifa was the first abductee with part of his staff in november 22 and they are  still uncommunicados and likely under duress.
nel caso in cui qualcuno pensasse che non fosse una direttiva precisa quella di distruggere tutti i servizi sanitari, e credesse che l'IDF fosse diretto dalla (falsa) affermazione secondo cui al Shifa era un covo del commando generale di Hamas, credo che ogni dubbio debba essere fugato ora , ed è giunto il momento di reagire.

novità 14 dicembre.
Kamal Adwan-nel nord di Gaza. Un altro ospedale evacuato con la forza oggi nel nord di Gaza dopo giorni di assedio, l'uccisione del personale da parte di cecchini, l'uccisione di una donna incinta che tentava di recarsi lì per partorire e del suo bambino e il ferimento di un'altra donna incinta all'ingresso. L'ospedale lavorava a capacità ridotte a causa della mancanza di rifornimenti, carburante, acqua e cibo.
In un altro ospedale il personale e gli uomini sono stati presi in ostaggio e rapiti. L'IDF afferma di aver rapito combattenti della resistenza dall'interno dell'ospedale Kamal Edwan e di averli costretti "ad alzare le armi e ad arrendersi". Tuttavia, ulteriori indagini di Euro-Med Monitor hanno rivelato che le persone nella foto erano in realtà un medico tirocinante di nome Nasr Imad Al-Madhoun e un'infermiera impiegata presso l'ospedale.
Questa non è la prima volta e non è l’ultima.
Più tardi oggi stessa sorte per l'ospedale alAwda, nel nord di Gaza evacuato e personale rapito dopo 5 o più giorni di assedio, colpita la sala operatoria e 2 piani dell'ospedale, uccidendo all'interno 3 operatori sanitari. Questo ospedale aveva principalmente servizi di consegna e aveva al suo interno 36 pazienti, 38 loro parenti, 90 dipendenti e circa lo stesso numero di familiari, ed era senza forniture mediche dal 7 ottobre, con 0 carburante e 0 ossigeno da giorni e senza acqua da 3 giorni.

Questa sera è stata ordinata l'evacuazione dell'ospedale Al Alhi, dopo giorni di assedio. Al Ahli è stata bombardata il 17 ottobre, nel primo di questi attacchi contro strutture mediche nell'ambito di questo piano criminale di distruzione dei servizi sanitari e delle strutture mediche e di uccisione e rapimento del personale. Che tutti riposino in pace.
Possiamo lavorare per fermare il genocidio e per il ritorno degli ostaggi, il dottor Al salamya, direttore di Shifa, è stato il primo rapito con parte del suo staff il 22 novembre e loro sono ancora senza comunicazione e probabilmente sotto costrizione.


Paola Manduca, Prof. Genetics
President NWRG-odv 


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Breaking News

🔴  Head of the Children’s Department at Kamal Adwan Hospital:

▪️ The occupation forces have taken all male casualties and medical teams at the hospital to an unknown location.

▪️ Medical teams are unable to provide medical care to children in the intensive care unit at the hospital.

▪️ The hospital has been surrounded by Israeli tanks and snipers for five days.

▪️ We demand the entry of fuel as we have been living in darkness at the hospital for 5 days.

▪️ There are premature babies in the hospital, along with more than 65 wounded, and we have no food or electricity.

▪️ Israeli shelling continues on homes surrounding the hospital.

▪️ We have 12 children in intensive care at the hospital, and we fear a catastrophic outcome.

▪️ Large numbers have sought refuge at the hospital, mostly children and women, and they cannot find any food.

▪️ None of the medical staff detained by the occupation has returned to the hospital.

🔴| Deputy of Ministry of Health:

▪️ Besieged individuals in Kamal Adwan Hospital in the northern Gaza Strip are unable to access water.

▪️ The occupation forces have used civilians as human shields in Kamal Adwan Hospital.

▪️ The administration of Al-Awda Hospital rejects occupation orders to evacuate the hospital.

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Il massacro di Gaza non è una vendetta.

Le motivazioni allo sterminio dei palestinesi vanno al di là della vendetta  scatenata dopo la sanguinosa operazione Tempesta di al-Aqsa del 7 ottobre. Alla base ci sono cause economiche. Il progetto è preesistente: l’obiettivo di Israele è quello di impossessarsi delle immense ricchezze costituite dai giacimenti di gas che spetterebbero ai palestinesi. Il piano di deportazione si articola in tre fasi: 1) costringere la popolazione stanziata nel nord della Striscia (oltre un milione di persone), sottoposto a bombardamenti massici, a spostarsi verso sud; 2) far entrare l’esercito israeliano a Gaza in modo da occupare l’intera Striscia ed eliminare le postazioni di Hamas; 3) trasferire la popolazione nella zona desertica del Sinai egiziano da cui non dovrà fare più ritorno. All’Egitto, le cui condizioni economiche sono gravi, è stato proposto l’annullamento dell’intero debito estero (135 miliardi di dollari). Questo piano si collega con il progetto del Canale Ben Gurion, un progetto che prevede di congiungere Gaza e Ashkelon al golfo di Aqaba nel Mar Rosso (260 km) creando un nuovo corridoio, alternativo al Canale di Suez (193 km), per il commercio mondiale e l’energia. Clicca qui.


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the narration of a doctor that worked at al Nasser. pediatric in Gaza city, now closed

How Israel starved a sick child of oxygen

Amublance crews have been targeted during Israel’s genocidal war on Gaza.

 Atia DarwishAPA images

Al-Nasr pediatric hospital in northern Gaza is among the medical institutions which Israel has attacked over the past two months.

As well as taking care of patients, the hospital became a shelter for displaced people in the early stages of the current war.

A few weeks after the war began, al-Nasr hospital was subjected to heavy shelling. Shrapnel flew toward medical staff and the displaced.

Staff could not give adequate treatment to the wounded. Transferring patients to al-Shifa, Gaza’s largest hospital, was “kind of impossible,” Soher, a doctor at al-Nasr hospital, said.

“There was a fear that ambulances would be targeted.”

Around midnight on 6 November, the laundry department at al-Nasr hospital was hit by an Israeli airstrike.

“My heart dropped,” Soher said. “It was unimaginable – a hospital bombed directly.”

“I looked out the window,” she added. “Suddenly, the courtyard was full of dust. You could hear screams echoing everywhere. And the alarm barely stopped.”

Soher’s own family was taking refuge in the hospital at the time, as their home had been targeted. “The women were in a room, while the men were in a tent in the courtyard.”

Following the airstrike, Soher tried to locate her relatives.

“I quickly put on my white coat, covered my head and went straight down to check if any of them were injured,” she said. “I found my father, grabbed his hand and asked about everybody. He reassured me that they were fine.”

Once she had seen her dad, Soher, a fellow doctor and a nurse ran towards the emergency department. Reaching it involved running through the courtyard, which was under continuous shelling.

The scene at the emergency department was harrowing.

“I saw a decapitated female body and doctors trying to revive her sister nearby. I had to wrap a child’s wound with gauze despite how it needed stitches. There was no choice. A girl with an amputated arm and a woman with shrapnel in the chest needed a transfer to al-Shifa but it was impossible. All of this happened amid a communications blackout with no way to reach anyone, including ambulances.”

Despite the shelling, some families did succeed in calling ambulances from the neighboring Rantisi children’s hospital. Eventually, some wounded people were brought to al-Shifa.


Many people were so terrified by what happened that they left the hospital. “They included my sister,” said Soher.

Soher’s husband Muhammad is an orthopedic surgeon working at al-Shifa. At times during the war, they have been unable to contact each other.

On 7 November – one day after the airstrike against al-Nasr hospital – the situation worsened considerably.

Israeli snipers spread around the hospital. The shelling intensified.

There was a scarcity of food and water. And the generators on which the hospital has relied for energy failed.

The following day, Israeli tanks hit wards where patients were being treated. Though there were no casualties, the oxygen supply was momentarily disrupted.

A child who required oxygen in the intensive care unit died.

This child was Yahia Shabet, a patient with muscular dystrophy.

I knew Yahia personally. He was being treated in Muhammad al-Durra hospital in eastern Gaza, where I worked as an intern earlier this year.

When al-Durra hospital came under attack during Israel’s current war. Yahia was transferred to al-Nasr.

With Israeli troops raiding al-Nasr, doctors could not remove Yahia’s body for burial. His body was left on an ICU bed for three weeks after Israeli troops forcibly evacuated the hospital.

A few other children died in the ICU following the evacuation.

On 9 November, everyone in al-Nasr hospital heard Israeli tanks getting closer. The shelling was indiscriminate.

“Later, two people attempted to leave, carrying a white flag,” Soher said. “But as soon as they reached the gate, they were brutally targeted. We started to appeal for evacuation. An Israeli officer called the hospital director and approved evacuation and said that ICU patients will be evacuated later by the Red Cross.”

The promise that the International Committee of the Red Cross would oversee the evacuation from the ICU turned out to be worthless.

“I couldn’t bear it”

The army ordered them to move from al-Ayoun Street in the Sheikh Radwan area of Gaza City, then towards southern Gaza, with their hands raised and holding white flags.

“This scene was agonizing,” Soher said. “My heart was choked by this humiliation. We stepped forward, and the brutal occupation forces opened fire. We stepped back and when we tried to step forward again, they fired again. Meanwhile, white phosphorus bombs were raining down.”

The patients finally succeeded in leaving as tanks surrounded the area. Everyone walked quietly.

They saw two people with white flags killed in the street.

“I couldn’t bear it all,” Soher said. “I cried a lot. I wished I could scream.”

As they walked down al-Ayoun Street, the evacuees were joined by people leaving two other nearby hospitals.

“The fear of being shot for no reason kept my heart racing.” Soher said. “We kept walking, raising our ID cards. Mine was with my husband, so I held the hospital ID card. The color of my ID card is green. My hospital ID card was blue.”

At one point, the army ordered everyone to stop. Soher heard an order for someone to come forward, with the person being identified by the color blue.

Soher thought that the soldier was referring to her ID card. But the order was directed at someone wearing a blue shirt.

On hearing the order, Soher threw away her ID card on the advice of a fellow doctor.

The long walk proved very challenging for Soher’s father, who is diabetic and has high blood pressure. He had to stop every so often for breaks.

As the sun set, the family managed to find a bus. It brought them to Bani Suheila, near the southern Gaza city of Khan Younis. Muhammad, her husband, was later evacuated from al-Shifa hospital and was able to join her in Khan Younis.

“We arrived at my friend’s house, where we are taking shelter,” said Soher. “I hugged my friend tightly and was in floods of tears. I had just spent a month under constant fire.”

“After a comforting warm bath, I sat chatting with Muhammad on my phone. My family went to bed early. But I couldn’t sleep. I stayed awake all night, trying to understand what was happening.”

Sewar Elejla was formerly a doctor at al-Shifa hospital in Gaza. She is now a Canada-based researcher.

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[8/12, 08:53]  *The highlights of the press conference by the Ministry of Health spokesman, Dr.  Ashraf Al-Qudra on the 62nd day of the Israeli aggression on the Gaza Strip*

 The Israeli occupation continues to commit massacres and genocide of entire families in the Gaza Strip, including areas that the occupation falsely claims are safe.

 We face great difficulties in counting the martyrs and wounded as a result of the continuous bombing and the large number of victims remaining under the rubble and on the roads.

 The Israeli occupation deliberately targets ambulance and civil defense crews and prevents them from arriving to evacuate the wounded and martyrs from the areas where its military forces are present.

 350 martyrs and 1,900 injured arrived at hospitals during the past hours, and a large number of victims are still under the rubble and on the roads, and we cannot reach them.

 The death toll from the Israeli aggression since the start of the Israeli aggression has risen to 17,177.

 46 thousand citizens were killed and injured.

 70% of the victims of the Israeli aggression are children and women.

 Israeli violations against the health system led to the death of 290 health personnel

 The Israeli occupation deliberately targeted 102 ambulances and put them out of service.

 The Israeli occupation destroyed 130 health institutions and removed 20 hospitals and 46 primary care centers.

 The Israeli occupation is still arresting 36 health personnel from the Gaza Strip, led by the Director General of Al-Shifa Medical Complex, Dr.  Muhammad Abu Salamiya was in dire and inhumane circumstances.

  Hundreds of thousands of residents of northern Gaza are subjected to genocide and left without health coverage.

 The Israeli occupation deliberately ended the health sector presence in northern Gaza

 Al-Baptist Hospital in Gaza has lost its medical capacity as a result of the large number of injuries and the wounded are dying.

 Evacuating northern Gaza from health services has disastrous repercussions on the lives of the wounded and sick, and the situation will be worse if the scenario is repeated in the south.

  Hospitals in the south have lost their capacity and their occupancy rate has reached 206% in the overnight departments and 250% in the intensive care units. They lack bone stabilizers and various surgical supplies and medications and treatment of burns.

 We lost virus tests for blood units and began transfusing blood units without testing. This is in violation of all applicable medical protocols and has serious repercussions on the wounded, the sick, and the health of society. Therefore, we place everyone on their responsibilities.

 The health and humanitarian situation in shelters is catastrophic as a result of the lack of water, food and medicine.

 1.9 million displaced people in shelters, “according to statistics announced by UNRWA.” We confirm that the displaced are exposed to the risk of famine and the spread of epidemics.

 Hundreds of thousands of displaced people, including pregnant women, children, chronic patients, and the wounded, are exposed to death as a result of lack of nutrition and health care.

 *In view of the above, we affirm the following:*

  We call on the United Nations to activate its resolutions to stop the Israeli aggression and protect civilian objects and health institutions.

  We call on international institutions to work immediately to provide protection, medicine and fuel needs for the Al-Shifa Medical Complex and the hospitals in northern Gaza so that we can restart them in response to the needs of the wounded and sick.

  We call on all parties to provide a safe humanitarian corridor that guarantees the flow of medical supplies and fuel and the exit of hundreds of wounded.

  We call on international bodies to provide urgent field hospitals to northern Gaza

  He called on the International Committee of the Red Cross and the World Health Organization to visit and inspect the conditions of medical personnel detained by the Israeli occupation and to work seriously and immediately to release them.

  We call on the United Nations and its humanitarian institutions to take urgent measures to prevent the humanitarian and health catastrophe of displaced persons in shelters.

  We appeal to the international community, led by the World Health Organization and international institutions, to work immediately to provide the necessary viral tests to ensure the safety of blood units.

  We call on medical unions around the world to send specialized medical delegations to rescue the wounded

 We call on all medical teams to go to Al-Shifa Medical Complex and the hospitals they can reach in northern Gaza in order to save the wounded and sick.

[8/12, 08:53] forse: *Attacks and violations of the health sector*

  •      Israeli violations against the health system led to the martyrdom of 286 health personnel and the injury of hundreds (a list of names is attached).

  •      The number of health facilities affected since the beginning of the aggression reached 56 institutions.

  •      The Israeli occupation deliberately targeted health institutions, which led to 20 hospitals and 46 health centers being put out of service due to targeting and running out of fuel.

  •      Hospitals have lost their treatment and capacity. Medical teams are treating the wounded with very limited capabilities.

  •      The occupation deliberately targets ambulances, the most recent of which was the targeting of an ambulance convoy transporting injured people heading to the Arab Republic of Egypt. This led to the destruction of more than 102 ambulances making them out of service.

[8/12, 08:55]        The number of patients and wounded who left the Gaza Strip for treatment abroad via the Rafah crossing reached 497 (including 407 wounded, 90 patients), and the number of those accompanying them reached 387 since the beginning of the aggression.


[12/08, 08:53] * I punti salienti della conferenza stampa del portavoce del Ministero della Salute, Dr. Ashraf Al-Qudra, sul 62° giorno dell’aggressione israeliana alla Striscia di Gaza*


L’occupazione israeliana continua a commettere massacri e genocidi di intere famiglie nella Striscia di Gaza, comprese le aree che l’occupazione dichiara falsamente sicure.


Ci troviamo di fronte a grandi difficoltà nel contare i martiri e i feriti a causa dei continui bombardamenti e del gran numero di vittime rimaste sotto le macerie e sulle strade.


L’occupazione israeliana prende di mira deliberatamente gli equipaggi delle ambulanze e della protezione civile e impedisce loro di arrivare per evacuare i feriti e i martiri dalle aree in cui sono presenti le sue forze militari.


Nelle ultime ore sono arrivati ​​negli ospedali 350 martiri e 1.900 feriti, e un gran numero di vittime sono ancora sotto le macerie e sulle strade, e non possiamo raggiungerle.


Il bilancio delle vittime dell’aggressione israeliana dall’inizio dell’aggressione israeliana è salito a 17.177.

46mila cittadini furono uccisi e feriti.


Il 70% delle vittime dell’aggressione israeliana sono bambini e donne.


Le violazioni israeliane contro il sistema sanitario hanno portato alla morte di 290 operatori sanitari


L’occupazione israeliana ha deliberatamente preso di mira 102 ambulanze e le ha messe fuori servizio.


L’occupazione israeliana ha distrutto 130 istituzioni sanitarie e rimosso 20 ospedali e 46 centri di assistenza primaria.


L’occupazione israeliana sta ancora arrestando 36 operatori sanitari della Striscia di Gaza, guidati dal direttore generale del complesso medico Al-Shifa, il dottor Muhammad Abu Salamiya, che si trovava in circostanze terribili e disumane.


Centinaia di migliaia di residenti nel nord di Gaza sono soggetti a genocidio e lasciati senza copertura sanitaria.


L’occupazione israeliana ha deliberatamente posto fine alla presenza del settore sanitario nel nord di Gaza


L’ospedale Al-Baptist di Gaza ha perso la sua capacità medica a causa del gran numero di feriti e i feriti stanno morendo.


L’evacuazione del nord di Gaza dai servizi sanitari ha ripercussioni disastrose sulla vita dei feriti e dei malati, e la situazione peggiorerà se lo scenario si ripeterà nel sud.


Gli ospedali del Sud hanno perso la loro capacità e il loro tasso di occupazione ha raggiunto il 206% nei reparti notturni e il 250% nelle unità di terapia intensiva. Mancano stabilizzatori ossei e vari materiali chirurgici, farmaci e cure per le ustioni.


Abbiamo perso i test virali per le unità di sangue e abbiamo iniziato a trasfondere unità di sangue senza test. Ciò viola tutti i protocolli medici applicabili e ha gravi ripercussioni sui feriti, sui malati e sulla salute della società. Pertanto, attribuiamo a ciascuno le proprie responsabilità.


La situazione sanitaria e umanitaria nei rifugi è catastrofica a causa della mancanza di acqua, cibo e medicine.


1,9 milioni di sfollati nei rifugi, “secondo le statistiche annunciate dall’UNRWA”. Confermiamo che gli sfollati sono esposti al rischio di carestia e alla diffusione di epidemie.


Centinaia di migliaia di sfollati, tra cui donne incinte, bambini, pazienti cronici e feriti, sono esposti alla morte a causa della mancanza di nutrizione e assistenza sanitaria.


*Tutto ciò premesso si afferma quanto segue:*


Chiediamo alle Nazioni Unite di attivare le loro risoluzioni per fermare l’aggressione israeliana e proteggere i beni civili e le istituzioni sanitarie.


Chiediamo alle istituzioni internazionali di lavorare immediatamente per fornire protezione, medicine e carburante al complesso medico di Al-Shifa e agli ospedali nel nord di Gaza in modo da poterli riavviare in risposta ai bisogni dei feriti e dei malati.


Chiediamo a tutte le parti di fornire un corridoio umanitario sicuro che garantisca il flusso di forniture mediche e carburante e l’uscita di centinaia di feriti.


Chiediamo agli organismi internazionali di fornire ospedali da campo urgenti nel nord di Gaza


Ha invitato il Comitato Internazionale della Croce Rossa e l’Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanità a visitare e ispezionare le condizioni del personale medico detenuto dall’occupazione israeliana e ad adoperarsi seriamente e immediatamente per rilasciarlo.


Chiediamo alle Nazioni Unite e alle sue istituzioni umanitarie di adottare misure urgenti per prevenire la catastrofe umanitaria e sanitaria degli sfollati nei rifugi.


Chiediamo alla comunità internazionale, guidata dall’Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanità e dalle istituzioni internazionali, di lavorare immediatamente per fornire i test virali necessari per garantire la sicurezza delle unità trasfusionali.


Chiediamo ai sindacati medici di tutto il mondo di inviare delegazioni mediche specializzate per salvare i feriti


Chiediamo a tutte le équipe mediche di recarsi al complesso medico Al-Shifa e agli ospedali che possono raggiungere nel nord di Gaza per salvare i feriti e i malati.

[8/12, 08:53] forse: *Attacchi e violazioni al settore sanitario*


  • Le violazioni israeliane contro il sistema sanitario hanno portato al martirio di 286 operatori sanitari e al ferimento di centinaia (un elenco dei nomi è allegato).


  • Il numero delle strutture sanitarie colpite dall’inizio dell’aggressione ha raggiunto le 56 strutture.


  • L’occupazione israeliana ha deliberatamente preso di mira le istituzioni sanitarie, il che ha portato alla messa fuori servizio di 20 ospedali e 46 centri sanitari a causa della mancanza di carburante e di attacchi mirati.


  • Gli ospedali hanno perso cure e capacità. Le équipe mediche stanno curando i feriti con capacità molto limitate.


  • L’occupazione prende di mira deliberatamente le ambulanze, la più recente delle quali è stata quella contro un convoglio di ambulanze che trasportava feriti diretti nella Repubblica Araba d’Egitto. Ciò ha portato alla distruzione di più di 102 ambulanze rendendole fuori servizio.


[12/08, 08:55] Il numero di pazienti e feriti che hanno lasciato la Striscia di Gaza per cure all’estero attraverso il valico di Rafah ha raggiunto 497 (di cui 407 feriti, 90 pazienti), e il numero di coloro che li accompagnavano ha raggiunto 387 dall’inizio dell’aggressione.

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